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My Road to Science

by Professor Janusz Turowski


My road to Science was rather unusual, quite like an adventure story.

From severe Siberian slavery work in the Taiga forests and chilled steppes (down to -700C) as cowboy, loader, woodcutter and raftsman on hazardous Irtysh River; to my present academic position...

War and political perturbation, as well as struggle for national independence like that of most Poles[1] who survived the 20th century, permanently affected our life and education.

Since my childhood I have always dreamed of becoming an engineer.

The happy childhood in the city Kowel[2], in a patriotic family (Fig.1a) of a local surgeon and Director of Hospital, did not predict the war of 1939, Hitler’s and Stalin’s armies' invasion on Poland, and the cruel consequences of it (Fig. 1b).

Fig. 1. Turowski family: a) in Kowel 1928; author on the mother's knees

and b) In Siberia 1940; author as forest worker, standing on the right


In the 1930s Poland was developing and rebuilding intensively in an atmosphere of enthusiasm and hope. Poles felt the joy of liberation after 123 years of foreign domination, when national education was prohibited, and after the recent great victory won by the young Polish army over the massive 1920 Soviet attack. This attack was aimed to conquer Europe "over Poland's corpse".

There were no ethnic conflicts with Ukrainian, Jewish, German, Czech and other minorities at this time. These conflicts were organised later (1943) by both occupants, together with the "ethnic cleansing" against Poles. After 1940, Polish education higher than elementary again became forbidden and punished by Soviet Gulag or German Ausschwitz concentration camps. Such education was being organised secretly at homes as illegal underground secondary and tertiary schools.

My father, Dr. Boleslaw Turowski, was born in 1885 in the Polish ethnic and cultural region of the ancient city Zhitomiezh[3], where British novelist Conrad - Korzeniowski was born and French writer Honoré de Balzac got married to the Polish countess Eveline Hanska. After graduation in 1914 at Kiev University, my father was taken to the Russian-Turkish Caucasian front as an army doctor. My mother, on the other hand, graduated as a midwife, was born in the city Stavropol (Caucasus region) in a Polish family. Her family was deported there from Poland after XIXth century Polish uprisings against Russian domination.

After the 1917 Soviet Revolution, they escaped to Poland. But in 1939, when the Soviets invaded Poland, my father was casted into the Soviet "Gulag" concentration camp. My mother, with us - four children, was deported then on 13th April 1940 to Siberia (Fig.1b), jointly with 2 million other Poles.

Beautiful but severe Siberian nature was a first "university" of a 12 year-old boy.

Suddenly, from a schoolboy I was turned into a farm and forest worker. My experience from scouting and five years of Polish school proved very helpful in my "study" in the heavy and permanently starving conditions. I had access to only one, smuggled university book on the history of Polish literature.  I also tried to learn a new language from a casual Russian book. Nevertheless, during those difficult 6 years, I managed to almost finish secondary Russian school, even with excellent notes.

At the outbreak of the 1941 Soviet-German war, the Soviets unexpectedly let my father leave the Gulag concentration camp. Though extremely exhausted, he started to work in a Russian hospital in 1942.

Thanks to it, I was able to reduce my worker job hours and attend Russian secondary school in the city of Pavlodar. As the "best educated" boy, I even had to become the chief of an underground patriotic Polish youngster's organisation. I became the chief when my older colleagues went (1943) to join the Polish General Anders Army. This army participated in the liberation of Italy. Another part of them defended the U.K.[4] and participated in the liberation of France and the Netherlands. Other colleagues were taken next to Gen. Berling's Army (1944), which participated in the liberation of Poland and in the Berlin Victory in May 1945. At the age of 17, I became for the first time in my life a teacher in self-education of my conspiracy colleagues.

My father began to teach me German and I can still speak this language, though English disturbs me in it.

 Together with my Polish friend, Jerzy Powojski, we managed to pass 8th grade (day classes) and 9th grade (evening classes) in one school year. As a result, considering that in Russia secondary education lasted 10 years, and in Poland 12 years, we managed to make up the three years of education that we lost in Siberian steppes and forests. Our skills in the Latin alphabet gave us easy success in the learning of German and Kazakh languages[5].

Sudden discovery by German troops of the Katyn Crime[6], became another complication to our life.

However, in between of being a raftsman on the huge Irtysh River, I managed to finish automobile school as a professional truck driver. It was my first desired engineering education. Instead of an ox "driver" (Fig, 2).

Unexpectedly, in 1941, large groups of Volga River Germans, Chechens, Ingushes and other complete Caucasus nations started coming to our living place. Stalin deported them during the most severe Siberian winter at minus 50-600C, conveyed on ox or horse transport, like in Fig. 2. Hundreds of kilometres through the frozen steppes. Many of them died and small steppe wolfs ate their corpses. 

At the end of the war and the Yalta dictate (1946), Soviets created a puppet "Polish People’s Government" and we again became "normal" Polish citizens with some freedom to learn in Polish and finally for repatriation[7]. In March 1946 I returned to Poland, passed Polish Matura (secondary school final exam) at an evening Lyceum in Lublin, and enrolled to the Technical University of Lodz.

In 1951, I at last reached my permanent dream to become an engineer.

It was a title of M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering in specialisation of Electrical Machines. In 1957, I obtained a Ph.D. degree, in 1963 a D.Sc. degree, and in 1971 – Full Professor in electrical engineering.

It was peculiar that this happened, in spite of the fact that I spent all my childhood in hospitals and in a medical family tradition. Those  traditions turned back to my younger son Gregory, who is now a Plastic Surgeon in Chicago, USA, after graduation and Ph.D. in medicine in Lodz, and later specialisations at the Yale and Harvard Universities. My older son Marek went of the wake of his father, but in a more modern discipline. After having obtained his education and Ph.D. in Electronics Engineering in Lodz, now he is a Manger of Micro/Nano Electronics in CFD Research Corporation, also in USA. It may be interesting that Marek and his friend Mirek Kopec, while being yet students of the Lodz Technical University, helped me significantly at computerisation of my program RNM-3D. Since that time, I found several times that scientific co-operation with my MSc students, thanks to their fresh mind and enthusiasm, can be extraordinarily effective.

I started my work (1949) at the same Technical University of Lodz, yet before my graduation.

I was lucky to work under the direction of Professor E. Jezierski, who was an outstanding specialist in Electrical Machines and Power Transformers.

He taught me to keep a close connection of my research with industrial practice.

I always had that aim before me.

From the very beginning I was fascinated by the beauty and the mathematical capability of Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory and its design effectiveness. Non-linear magnetic and thermal processes and their linearisation for rapid design are additional fascinating scientific challenges.

I was very happy to introduce this high-level science to electrical machines and transformer engineering practice, not only in Poland. Before introduction of this innovation into my specialisation, practically only magnetic circuit laws were used. Maxwell's theory and vector calculus was often misinterpreted as "too difficult and too abstract for engineering education". I understood at that time that reasonable eddy current analysis is not possible without Maxwell's theory and vector calculus.

The ignoring it was a big impoverishment of design methodology.

My first research work (1948), together with late colleague J. Rachwalski, was theoretical and experimental verification of semi-empirical formulae for additional losses in transformer windings. Mr Zbigniew Kopczynski MSc El. Eng, Chief Designer of "Elektrobudowa" and then "ELTA" Transformer Works of Lodz, developed this handy and rapid engineering tool. Since that time, I co-operated permanently with these works and also later with many similar foreign works.

My next independent job (1950) was a design of AC/DC rotary converter. This machine is not in use anymore, but it was extremely intelligent device, which united in one body the theory and technology of all kinds of electrical machines.

Here again eddy current and non-linear electromagnetic and thermal theory was a main tool.

I began to work intensively on introduction and popularisation of the applied Maxwell's theory at my and other universities. At that time, this theory was used rather only in radio-telecommunication sciences.

To emphasise the difference from "Classical Electrodynamics" (Jackson[8]), the popular part of mathematical physics, I called it "Technical Electrodynamics"[9]. It was in view to demonstrate that it was strictly practical tool for rapid solution of complicated engineering problems, considering different thermal, material and economical aspects. TE accepts any, theoretically justified, simplified and semi-empirical methods.

As a rule it uses experimental support and verification.

Any of the methods, if they are only technically and experimentally reliable, are applicable here.

The old maxim: "The end sanctifies the means" is relevant also here.

I inculcated to my students of design specialisation a figurative directive that: "...mathematicians may resolve what is resolvable, whereas engineers... have to resolve everything!...".

C.F. Bohren[10] is right when he says almost the same: "...Those who are interested in application cannot avoid complexity..." and more sarcastic: "...mathematics is too important to be left to mathematicians...".

I was very happy that my young assistants and students of those times were immediately infected by my enthusiasm.

Best of them are now outstanding specialists in this field, like Professors T. Janowski, K. Zakrzewski, P. Jezierski, J. Sykulski, E. Mendrela, J. Gieras, M. Kazmierski, K. Komeza, S. Wiak, G. Zwolinski end others. They added since that time plenty of new contributions, developed and fastened Technical Electrodynamics as a strong, indispensable university discipline. Recently, they have connected it closely with the modern Information Systems and Mechatronics. An impressive and influential "Polish School of Technical Electrodynamics" has been created, which radiates all over the world - from United States and Canada, via Europe, Russia, and Asia, to Australia. 

After a war massacre of Polish intelligentsia, there was a strong need for engineers everywhere in Poland.

For us, young specialists, it was a big professional challenge to be useful in many reviving industries and to electrical energy services of whole country. Unfortunately, not only Professors, but also most of Polish books and libraries were massacred. We learned from single remaining Polish (Jezierski, Dubicki, Gogolewski), some old German (Richter, Lifschitz), and new Russian (Neiman, Postnikov) technical books. The latter were reasonable, very practical, easier available, and inexpensive. I remember also remarkable American, UNRRA, and other foreign assistance for students.

In spite of the "Iron Curtain" (1946-1981), severely isolating our country from contacts with the “free world”, we managed to find small streams of information from highly developed countries. However, mostly we were forced to do research efforts and construction works in strong isolation from the more developed world. Often, we had to do it from fundamentals and very beginning. Moscow ruled everywhere with their centralised, Utopian, Marxist, economy. Nevertheless, we worked intensively. In the ‘60s we designed and built from fundamentals new "ELTA" Transformer Works, one of the biggest in Europe  at that time. Now it is ABB.

It was necessary again to elaborate completely new, scientifically based, rapid methods of design and testing. That Rapid Design imperative remained in my mind for whole my professional life.

It was confirmed recently spectacularly by Mechatronics principles.

Engineering solutions should be fast, simple, cost-effective, and confirmed experimentally. It should be both at the 1st phase of preparing and checking reliability, and practical effectiveness of methods, at the 2nd phase of the final test, and 3rd - at manufacturing and service.

Research, which consists of system approach, analysis and synthesis (design), should be considered also like a commodity. In particular, analysis should be as short as possible to reduce a "time to market". Research should be passed to building prototype and production phase as soon as possible. The limit of research is approximately equal the cost of possible repair or insurance in the case of misfortune. And vice-versa, acceptance test should be carried out as long as costs of possible failure are comparable with improvements or insurance.

Literature on electromagnetics delivers nowadays at least 15 basic methods of field computation and much more combined and hybrid ones. All of them are equivalent in theoretical sense, but not equivalent in economical and practical suitability for regular design use.

Differences in CPU time of computation with different methods can be as much as few months against 1 second. Correctly selected method allows modelling and calculation that would have otherwise been impossible or cost-prohibitive to carry out.

The basic engineering criteria of selection of one of the numerous offered programs are:

  a) Easy to use with moderate-size (PC) computers, without special education of users in the field theory and sophisticated numerical methods.

   b) Fast, no more than few seconds for one design variant of interactive analysis and optimisation of 3-D systems, with graphic display or simple synthetic parametric formulae.

   c) Yielding useful design data, e.g. power losses in kW, hot-spots in temperature and their localisation, savings in US$, etc.

   d) Maintaining flexibility with minimum cost in time and effort.

   e) Possibility to consider easily complicated 3-D, 3-phase, asymmetric, structures, and heating effects, non-linear permeability, eddy-current effects, etc.

Most of the mentioned methods were checked in our laboratory. Our experience has shown that, for example, for 3-D stray field and power loss computation and screening design in power transformers, an equivalent Reluctance Network Method RNM-3D has proven the best.

In other problems, on the other hand, like e.g. transformer coverplate, the simple Biot-Savart theory has proven more convenient. For 2-D or quasi 2-D analyses instead, the FEM-2D method is quite satisfactory.

Nevertheless, integral methods (ANM, BEM, RNM) are generally faster, more convergent and smooth, than differential one (FDM, FEM), which generate errors by their mathematics nature.

In spite of painful experience with the Soviet Regime, I always had friendly relations with Russian and Ukrainian colleagues, who often suffered like we did. They translated from Polish and edited into Russia my two fundamental books “Technical Electrodynamics” and “Electromagnetic Calculation of Elements of Electrical Machines and Devices”.

In 1984 they invited me with my wife, on their expense, to visit and deliver lectures in Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Science in Novosibirsk. The historical circle was closed. I appeared again in Siberia, near to my deportation place. But this time as a VIP and honorary, scientific guest.

They elected me to the International Academy of Electrotechnical Sciences, granted the honorary medal and, what was most pleasantly surprising, they published in leading Russian Journal "Electrichestvo" No 10/1999 my CV entitled "To 50th Anniversary of Prof. Turowski Scientific Activity". Especially moving in it was frank remark that "Turowskis family was prosecuted and deported to Siberia..." 

ISEF history.

The idea of well-known nowadays the biennial “International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields in Electrical Engineering -ISEF" was born in 1974, when we, together with present Professors K. Zakrzewski and J. Sykulski organised the first Symposium on “Electrodynamics of Transformers and Electrical Machines” in Castle of Uniejow near Lodz. Then followed Lodz'79 (Fig. 3), when we hosted many foreign partners, among them Professors Delaroi (Netherlands), Nakata (Japan), Savini (Pavia, Italy), Wood (Scotland) and others. Next, Warsaw and Rydzyna'82, Warsaw'85, Pavia'87, Lodz'89, Southampton'91, Warsaw'93, Thesaloniki'95, Gdansk'97, Pavia'99, Cracow'01, Maribor'03 and Baiona'05.

Fig. 3. Electrodynamics'79- Precursor ISEF

1979 was a year when we began my close and very intensive co-operation with Prof. Antonio Savini from the University of Pavia Dr hc of TUL, Prof. Marisa Rizzo from the University of Palermo, and other Italian Professors. Agreement on scientific co-opoeration of both universities was supported very warmly by the then, unforgettable Rector Alessandro Castellani, present Rector Roberto Schmid, Dr. hc of TUL, and Director of the Institute Prof. Giorgio Corbellini.

We have published jointly plenty of scientific papers and books, organised scientific conferences and extended these contacts to other colleagues and institutions - both Polish and foreign. Creation of “ISEF” was one of the “milestones” in our joint activity.

In 1980, the "Solidarity" movement exploded in Poland. We all, together with 10 millions Poles, joined it with enthusiasm.

During my first visit to the University of Pavia, I was deeply touched when on 3rd Nov. 1984 the Rector Castellani introduced me to the Holy Father John Paul the 2nd (Fig. 4). It was significant brightness in those gloomy days of Martial Law in Poland, when dying Communist regime murdered the patriotic priest Jerzy Popieluszko, and attempted to demolish the national motion aimed at freedom and independence.

In 1989, the communist "evil empire" collapsed definitely.

It happened when I was in Japan delivering lectures on invitation of Prof. T. Nakata (Okayama Univ.) and several transformer works (Toshiba, Hitachi, Nissin, Mitsubishi, Copyer).

 On 9th October, 1998, the author was honoured again by the title Doctor Honoris Causa from University of Pavia (Fig. 5), the oldest University of the world (est. AD 825). During that Ceremony, I presented lecture on "Engineering Electromagnetism in Pre-Computer and Computer Era".

Since I was active in both the eras, I know their research specifics well. The well-deserved Pre-computer Electromagnetism was very clever and on a high intellectual level.

When in the ‘50s I was looking for easy industrial methods of simple representation of sophisticated non-linear Maxwell's electrodynamics, convenient for rapid engineering design, I exploited the old Rosenberg[11] idea. It consists in introduction of linearisation coefficients, which after some improvements are ap »1.4 for active and aq »0.85 for reactive power in solid iron. Together with analytical approximation of magnetisation curves and modernised revival of convenient equivalent three-dimensional reluctance network method, it prepared an effective way for rapid modelling and calculation of any 3-D fields -electromagnetic, thermal, hydraulic, etc. (Flow Networks Method FNM).

The advent of modern computers came on time for creation of a new tool, called RNM-3D, for rapid modelling and calculation of stray field and losses in power transformers. RNM-3D fulfils one of the most important demands (rapid design) of contemporary Mechatronics.

The computer software packages RNM-3D was an immediate success during our "International Summer School of Transformers -ISST'93" in Lodz. Such industrial-academic meetings seem to be the best inspiration and test for sensible progress in research and education. They help to fasten together the industrial community. It profited recently again in organisation, jointly with Prof. Xose M. Lopez-Fernandez from University of Vigo (Spain), of successful "International Advanced Research Workshop on Modern Transformers ARWtr'04" (, and this year the "2nd International Advancec Research Workshop on Transformers ARWtr2007" (

Thanks to Expert System approach and a deep theoretical and physical research, described in author's books (mainly "Technical Electrodynamics", 1993), the RNM-3D has become simple in use and rapid interactive program. It profited in another, long lasting and still active collaboration with large Indian transformer industry. Especially with Mr Subramanya from GEC of India (Allahabad), Mr Gulwadi and Mr Koppikar from Crompton Graves Co. (Mumbai), Professor Kulkarni, now from Bombay University, EMCO Transformer Works (Thane), and others.

It was a great satisfaction that the author's RNM-3D programs are still used in plenty (almost 40) transformer works, universities, and research institutions all over the world - from Canada, USA, Brazil, Mexico, through Europe, Iran, India, China, to Australia. In spite of nearly 290 scientific publications, including dozen or so books, in different languages, this acceptance of colleagues from industry delivers me the highest professional satisfaction.

Another interesting experience were research activities and publications on crushing forces in slots of large turbine-generators and small and special machines, including induction linear motors.

Except of electromagnetism, the next author's essential interest is in generalised theory of electromechanical energy conversion and dynamic processes with necessary consideration of non-linear phenomena, mentioned above, and contribution of new information systems.

For the design of electromagnetic and electromechanical systems, two basic streams of approach are fundamental. They are:

- Maxwell's, thermal, mechanical, hydraulic and others field theories - necessary for machine design, and

- Hamilton's principle of least action with its Euler-Lagrange Equation - for the system motion and control.

The Hamilton's principle is my another loved scientific tool. Its simple, but clever, variational energy equation is the "god of any motion" in the nature and universe.

It have appeared, not without a reason, a beautiful anecdote that:

"Mechanistic, mathematician philosophers of turn of XVIII / XIX centuries, fascinated by successes of mathematics, tried to prove an existence of God with the help of mathematics. It was supposed that, if God was the Supreme Being, everything that he had created should be extremal (minimum or maximum), like in variational equation"...

And what is the most wondering? That it is nothing more than the present Hamilton's Principle[12].

Just fits to it the Italian saying: "So non a vero, ma ben trovato"[13].

Additionally, my latest favourite subject is the new, recently emerged discipline called Mechatronics.

Among many different definitions, the most synthetic is that of J. Millbank[14], who simply summarised:

"Mechatronics is not a subject, science or technology per se - it is instead to be regarded as a philosophy - a fundamental way of looking at and doing things..."

The last impressive progress in computer systems and technology has opened new perspectives for mechatronics. The "Rapid Design" and Innovations is the one of most important imperatives of this approach. N. Valéry expressively articulated it[15]:

"Innovation has become the industrial religion of the late 20th Century. Business sees it as the key to increasing profits and market share. Governments automatically reach for it when trying to fix the economy"...

Even if mechatronics is not a surprise for experienced engineers, it is a new important challenge for university education and economy policy. It "facilitates a disciplined process" (Tomkinson[16] p.5) and has shown more close synergetic, interdependence between such new disciplines like "Innovation Management", "Mechatronics", "Modern Technologies and Processing", "Quality management" and others, which I teach still  at a private college WSHE-Lodz at the Dept. of "Information Systems".

Mechatronics can be considered now as a synthesis of all industrial sciences. Its principles can be formulated as follows[17].

- System approach

- Rapid design methods

- Implementation of artificial intelligence

- Substitution of Concurrent engineering approach by Mechatronic engineering

- Collective work (Immediate contribution of experts to a joint final program)

- Simple, low-priced, rapid, and easy-to-understand methods based on deep theory (Only excellent expert can easily teach and build such programs)

- Exactness of modelling relevant to the need, and rejection of needless details.

- Analytical methods wherever it is possible.

- Linearisation of non-linear parameters

- Interactive design cycle with duration in seconds

- Expert systems: a) Building - quasi static, b) Motion - service or control in real time (The more of the knowledge loaded into the knowledge-base and data-base, the simpler and faster is the computer program)

- Simplification of modelling and design data at: a) Building of elements, b) Motion and control

- Structural optimisation of systems and mechanisms is often more important than particular


- ISO 9000. Responsibility for product quality is distributed to any work place (One for all)

- Simple machines with sophisticated control systems.

- Simple tools for design, based on sophisticated, comprehensive fundamental research

- Outsourcing, i.e. translocation part of component production to a specialised subcontractor.

One of the strongest impeding forces in Europe, and even much more so in post-communist countries’ economies with their relict organisation of science, is the so called "European Paradox"[18], defined by European Commission. Namely:

… "The European seeming inability to turn excellent research results into globally competitive products ... It does seem that Europe’s advanced science is too often taken elsewhere to be exploited commercially - usually to the United States.

Reasons for this may be related to the European risk-and-reward equation and Europe’s cultural attitudes to entrepreneurship, risk-taking and success".

One who wishes to act in contemporary, most profitable production cannot avoid sophisticated mathematics and physics as well as a brave innovativeness and economy.

Popular opinion between economists (Jasinski 2002) is that for solution of industrial and economic problems co-operation of Science and Industry is essential.

From the engineering point of view, this goal should be extended into more practical tasks.

The innovativeness and competitiveness of economy are based on three unavoidable legs:

1. Creators of innovations, without whom there does not exist any possibility;

2. Information, without which innovations are not available and dead; and

3. Application in industry, marketing and commercialisation of the research results.

The spectacular economical and industrial achievements, like Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems, FedEx, IBM, Intel, Nokia, etc. show how important is the role of Leaders and their leadership. This role is decisive from the beginning to the end of whole research-and-development (R&D) process.


Conclusions and Acknowledgements

Contemporary industry and economy policy is strongly affected by the extraordinary last decades’ development of computer and semiconductor technology as well innovation impact as a main tool of market competitiveness.

Impressive development of new integrated circuits technologies, information systems as well as doctrine and technology of mechatronics changed fundamentally approach to philosophy, economy, and techniques of research, education, and product manufacturing methods.

To most desired  are simple programs and design tools for rapid computer modelling and simulation for design of both machine components of the system and its dynamic and transient motion.

Rapid design, time to market, and innovativeness are inevitable conditions and chances for revival and international competitiveness. From "mechatronic revolution", suggestions also emerge for proper direction of research, education, and manufacturing methods.

The fast progress in creation of effective theory and methodology would not be possible without harmonious co-operation of many partners - from university professors, via industry, to DSc, PhD, MSc and undergraduate students.

At the end, the author wishes to express his sincere thanks to all these so many important partners for so friendly collaboration. Especially to those from industry, where successful application of his methods and programs have been the best tests of usefulness and highest engineering satisfaction from his research and education efforts.


About the author

 Janusz Turowski, Prof. PhD, DSc. El. Eng. Full professor (Retired in 2003) in Electrical Machines and Applied Electromagnetics in the Institute of Electrical Machines and Transformers (Since 2003 Institute of Mechatronics and Information Systems) Technical University of Lodz (TUL) Poland. Since 1999- full Prof. in Dept. of Intelligent Information Systems, Academy of Humanities and Economics - Lodz. Dr h.c. Univ. Pavia, Italy 1998. Full Member of the International Academy of Electrotechnical Sciences, Member of CIGRE (1964-2004), Senior Member IEEE. Director IEMT (1973-92). Author and joint author of 275 sci. publications, including 12 books, cited over 980 times. Supervisor of 18 PhD thesis. Consultant of Polish Ministers and Transformer Works in Poland, India and China, Australia, Canada, etc. Past President of the Polish Association of Theoretical and Applied Electrotechnical Sciences PTETiS and its Honorary Member. Member (1978-) and Vice-Chairman (1999-2003) of Electrical Committee of Polish Academy of Sciences. Chairman of "International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields in Elec. Engineering ISEF" (1979-2001) and its Honorary Chairman (2001-), Chairman of Polish UNESCO-UNISPAR Soc. (1996-2004) and its Honorary Chairman (2004-). Married, 2 sons. 

[1] Germans (1940) similarly drove my wife Maria, present retired Professor University of Lodz, out with her family from their city Brzesc Kujawski in western Poland. She in 14-years age fighted and her parents were killed in Warsaw 1944 anti-German Uprising.

[2] Kowel (Wolhynia province), XIVth century county seat of eastern Poland. After 1939 Soviet invasion Kowel was annexed to the Soviets state. Soviets have driven out most Polish population of Kowel to Siberia and parallel Germans killed Jewish minority and left the city completely destroyed.

[3] Zhitomir. A city of southwest European Ukraine, west of Kiev. First mentioned in 1240, it was a way station on the trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, passed to Lithuania (1320) and Poland (1569), and was incorporated into Russia in the late 1770's (AHDW), as Russian Partition of carved Poland.

[4] L. Olson and S. Cloud: “A Question of Honor…”, Random House, Inc., New York 2003.

[5] Not everybody knows that the Kazakh had their own ancient Latin alphabet. Only after 1945 they were enforced by Soviets to turn their Latin into the Russian Cyrillic. It is interesting who and when introduced Latin to the Kazakh culture. Maybe it was the Polish convict deportees following the XVIII-XIX century ati-Czar uprisings?

[6] In Katyn 1940 Soviet NKWD shot dead 22000 internee Polish army officers by pistol in occiput. Plenty of them were reservists, elite of Polish intellectualises, engineers, professors, writers and other civil specialists. It was exactly in the period of main deportation of millions Poles to Siberia including my family. At the same time of Polish University professors, priests, etc were imprisoned to German Ausschwitz, Dachau and other concentration camps.

[7] Unfortunately we returned not to our home city, because after the Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin’s Yalta 1945 decree Poles became expulsed from there.

[8] J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975.

[9] Janusz Turowski. Elektrodynamika Techniczna. Warszawa, WNT 1968 and 1993. 2nd edition

[10] A. Lakhtakia (Editor), Essays of Formal Aspects of Electromagnetic Theory, Singapore, London: World Scientific, 1993.

[11] E. Rosenberg. E. u M. 1923, p. 317-

[12] I have never met confirmation of this legend in philosophy and the more theology literature, but why not?...

[13] Though it is not true, it is found well.

[14] John Millbank: "Mecha-What", Mechatronic Forum Newsletter.No 6, 1993. University of Salford,

[15] N. Valéry: Innovation in industry: Industry gets religion. The Economist, 20 Febr. 5-8 (1999).

[16] D.Tomkinson, J.Horn: Mechatronics Engineering. McGrow-Hill. New York, 1995.

[17] J. Turowski: "Innovative Challenges in Technology Management". Chapter in book: A. H Jasinski, editor: Transition economies in the European Research and Innovation Area: New challenges for their science and technology, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydzialu Zarzadzania Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warsaw, 2004.

[18] Routi J., 1998, A new deal for European research. RTD info. E.Com. No 20, November, pp. 16-18.

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