My road to Science was
rather unusual, quite like an adventure story.
From severe Siberian
slavery work in the Taiga forests and chilled steppes (down to -700C)
as cowboy, loader, woodcutter and raftsman on hazardous Irtysh River; to
my present academic position...
War and political perturbation, as well as
struggle for national independence like that of most Poles
who survived the 20th century, permanently affected our life and
Since my childhood I have
always dreamed of becoming an engineer.
The happy childhood in
the city Kowel,
in a patriotic family (Fig.1a) of a local surgeon and Director of
Hospital, did not predict the war of 1939, Hitler’s and Stalin’s armies'
invasion on Poland, and the cruel consequences of it (Fig. 1b).
Fig. 1. Turowski family: a) in Kowel 1928; author on the mother's
and b) In Siberia 1940;
author as forest worker, standing on the right
In the 1930s Poland was
developing and rebuilding intensively in an atmosphere of enthusiasm and
hope. Poles felt the joy of liberation after 123 years of foreign
domination, when national education was prohibited, and after the recent
great victory won by the young Polish army over the massive 1920 Soviet
attack. This attack was aimed to conquer Europe "over Poland's corpse".
There were no ethnic
conflicts with Ukrainian, Jewish, German, Czech and other minorities at
this time. These conflicts were organised later (1943) by both
occupants, together with the "ethnic cleansing" against Poles. After
1940, Polish education higher than elementary again became forbidden and
punished by Soviet Gulag or German Ausschwitz concentration camps. Such
education was being organised secretly at homes as illegal underground
secondary and tertiary schools.
My father, Dr. Boleslaw Turowski, was
born in 1885 in the Polish ethnic and cultural region of the ancient
where British novelist Conrad - Korzeniowski was born and
got married to the Polish countess Eveline Hanska. After
graduation in 1914 at Kiev University, my father was taken to the
Russian-Turkish Caucasian front as an army doctor. My mother, on the
other hand, graduated as a midwife, was born in the city Stavropol
(Caucasus region) in a Polish family. Her family was deported there from
Poland after XIXth century Polish uprisings against Russian domination.
After the 1917 Soviet
Revolution, they escaped to Poland. But in 1939, when the Soviets
invaded Poland, my father was casted into the Soviet "Gulag"
concentration camp. My mother, with us - four children, was deported
then on 13th April 1940 to Siberia (Fig.1b), jointly with 2 million
Beautiful but severe
Siberian nature was a first "university" of a 12 year-old boy.
Suddenly, from a
schoolboy I was turned into a farm and forest worker. My experience from
scouting and five years of Polish school proved very helpful in my
"study" in the heavy and permanently starving conditions. I had access
to only one, smuggled university book on the history of Polish
literature. I also tried to learn a new language from a casual Russian
book. Nevertheless, during those difficult 6 years, I managed to almost
finish secondary Russian school, even with excellent notes.
At the outbreak of the
1941 Soviet-German war, the Soviets unexpectedly let my father leave the
Gulag concentration camp. Though extremely exhausted, he started to work
in a Russian hospital in 1942.
Thanks to it, I was able to reduce my worker
job hours and attend Russian secondary school in the city of Pavlodar.
As the "best educated" boy, I even had to become the chief of an
underground patriotic Polish youngster's organisation. I became the
chief when my older colleagues went (1943) to join the Polish General
Anders Army. This army participated in the liberation of Italy.
Another part of them defended the U.K.
and participated in the liberation of France and the Netherlands. Other
colleagues were taken next to Gen. Berling's Army (1944), which
participated in the liberation of Poland and in the Berlin Victory in
May 1945. At the age of 17, I became for the first time in my life a
teacher in self-education of my conspiracy colleagues.
My father began to
teach me German and I can still speak this language, though English
disturbs me in it.
Together with my Polish friend, Jerzy
Powojski, we managed to pass 8th grade (day classes) and
9th grade (evening classes) in one school year. As a result,
considering that in Russia secondary education lasted 10 years, and in
Poland 12 years, we managed to make up the three years of education that
we lost in Siberian steppes and forests. Our skills in the Latin
alphabet gave us easy success in the learning of German and Kazakh
Sudden discovery by German troops of the
became another complication to our life.
However, in between of
being a raftsman on the huge Irtysh River, I managed to finish
automobile school as a professional truck driver. It was my first
desired engineering education. Instead of an ox "driver" (Fig, 2).
Unexpectedly, in 1941,
large groups of Volga River Germans, Chechens, Ingushes and other
complete Caucasus nations started coming to our living place. Stalin
deported them during the most severe Siberian winter at minus 50-600C,
conveyed on ox or horse transport, like in Fig. 2. Hundreds of
kilometres through the frozen steppes. Many of them died and small
steppe wolfs ate their corpses.
At the end of the war and the Yalta dictate
(1946), Soviets created a puppet "Polish People’s Government" and we
again became "normal" Polish citizens with some freedom to learn in
Polish and finally for repatriation.
In March 1946 I returned to Poland, passed Polish Matura (secondary
school final exam) at an evening Lyceum in Lublin, and enrolled to the
Technical University of Lodz.
In 1951, I at last
reached my permanent dream to become an engineer.
It was a title of
M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering in specialisation of Electrical
Machines. In 1957, I obtained a Ph.D. degree, in 1963 a D.Sc. degree,
and in 1971 – Full Professor in electrical engineering.
It was peculiar that
this happened, in spite of the fact that I spent all my childhood in
hospitals and in a medical family tradition. Those traditions turned
back to my younger son Gregory, who is now a Plastic Surgeon in
Chicago, USA, after graduation and Ph.D. in medicine in Lodz, and later
specialisations at the Yale and Harvard Universities. My older son
Marek went of the wake of his father, but in a more modern
discipline. After having obtained his education and Ph.D. in Electronics
Engineering in Lodz, now he is a Manger of Micro/Nano Electronics in CFD
Research Corporation, also in USA. It may be interesting that Marek
and his friend Mirek Kopec, while being yet students of the Lodz
Technical University, helped me significantly at computerisation of my
program RNM-3D. Since that time, I found several times that scientific
co-operation with my MSc students, thanks to their fresh mind and
enthusiasm, can be extraordinarily effective.
I started my work (1949)
at the same Technical University of Lodz, yet before my graduation.
I was lucky to work
under the direction of Professor E. Jezierski, who was an
outstanding specialist in Electrical Machines and Power Transformers.
He taught me to keep a
close connection of my research with industrial practice.
I always had that aim
From the very
beginning I was fascinated by the beauty and the mathematical capability
of Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory and its design effectiveness.
Non-linear magnetic and thermal processes and their linearisation for
rapid design are additional fascinating scientific challenges.
I was very happy to
introduce this high-level science to electrical machines and transformer
engineering practice, not only in Poland. Before introduction of this
innovation into my specialisation, practically only magnetic circuit
laws were used. Maxwell's theory and vector calculus was often
misinterpreted as "too difficult and too abstract for engineering
education". I understood at that time that reasonable eddy current
analysis is not possible without Maxwell's theory and vector calculus.
The ignoring it was a
big impoverishment of design methodology.
My first research work
(1948), together with late colleague J. Rachwalski, was
theoretical and experimental verification of semi-empirical formulae for
additional losses in transformer windings. Mr Zbigniew Kopczynski
MSc El. Eng, Chief Designer of "Elektrobudowa" and then "ELTA"
Transformer Works of Lodz, developed this handy and rapid engineering
tool. Since that time, I co-operated permanently with these works and
also later with many similar foreign works.
My next independent
job (1950) was a design of AC/DC rotary converter. This machine is not
in use anymore, but it was extremely intelligent device, which united in
one body the theory and technology of all kinds of electrical machines.
Here again eddy
current and non-linear electromagnetic and thermal theory was a main
I began to work
intensively on introduction and popularisation of the applied Maxwell's
theory at my and other universities. At that time, this theory was used
rather only in radio-telecommunication sciences.
To emphasise the
difference from "Classical Electrodynamics"
the popular part of mathematical physics, I called it "Technical
It was in view to demonstrate that it was strictly practical tool for
rapid solution of complicated engineering problems, considering
different thermal, material and economical aspects. TE accepts any,
theoretically justified, simplified and semi-empirical methods.
As a rule it uses
experimental support and verification.
Any of the methods, if
they are only technically and experimentally reliable, are applicable
The old maxim: "The
end sanctifies the means" is relevant also here.
inculcated to my
students of design specialisation
a figurative directive that:
"...mathematicians may resolve what is resolvable, whereas
engineers... have to resolve everything!...".
is right when he says almost the same: "...Those who are interested
in application cannot avoid complexity..." and more sarcastic:
"...mathematics is too important to be left to mathematicians...".
I was very happy that
my young assistants and students of those times were immediately
infected by my enthusiasm.
Best of them are now
outstanding specialists in this field, like Professors T. Janowski,
K. Zakrzewski, P. Jezierski, J. Sykulski, E. Mendrela,
J. Gieras, M. Kazmierski,
K. Komeza, S. Wiak, G. Zwolinski
end others. They added since that
time plenty of new contributions, developed and fastened Technical
Electrodynamics as a strong, indispensable university discipline.
Recently, they have connected it closely with the modern Information
Systems and Mechatronics. An impressive and influential "Polish School
of Technical Electrodynamics" has been created, which radiates all over
the world - from United States and Canada, via Europe, Russia, and Asia,
After a war massacre
of Polish intelligentsia, there was a strong need for engineers
everywhere in Poland.
For us, young
specialists, it was a big professional challenge to be useful in many
reviving industries and to electrical energy services of whole country.
Unfortunately, not only Professors, but also most of Polish books and
libraries were massacred. We learned from single remaining Polish (Jezierski,
Dubicki, Gogolewski), some old German (Richter, Lifschitz),
and new Russian (Neiman, Postnikov) technical books. The latter
were reasonable, very practical, easier available, and inexpensive. I
remember also remarkable American, UNRRA, and other foreign assistance
In spite of the "Iron
Curtain" (1946-1981), severely isolating our country from contacts with
the “free world”, we managed to find small streams of information from
highly developed countries. However, mostly we were forced to do
research efforts and construction works in strong isolation from the
more developed world. Often, we had to do it from fundamentals and very
beginning. Moscow ruled everywhere with their centralised, Utopian,
Marxist, economy. Nevertheless, we worked intensively. In the ‘60s we
designed and built from fundamentals new "ELTA" Transformer Works, one
of the biggest in Europe at that time. Now it is ABB.
It was necessary again
to elaborate completely new, scientifically based, rapid methods of
design and testing. That Rapid Design imperative remained in my mind for
whole my professional life.
It was confirmed
recently spectacularly by Mechatronics principles.
should be fast, simple, cost-effective, and confirmed experimentally. It
should be both at the 1st phase of preparing and checking reliability,
and practical effectiveness of methods, at the 2nd phase of the final
test, and 3rd - at manufacturing and service.
Research, which consists
of system approach, analysis and synthesis (design), should be
considered also like a commodity. In particular, analysis should be as
short as possible to reduce a "time to market". Research should be
passed to building prototype and production phase as soon as possible.
The limit of research is approximately equal the cost of possible repair
or insurance in the case of misfortune. And vice-versa, acceptance test
should be carried out as long as costs of possible failure are
comparable with improvements or insurance.
electromagnetics delivers nowadays at least 15 basic methods of field
computation and much more combined and hybrid ones. All of them are
equivalent in theoretical sense, but not equivalent in economical
and practical suitability for regular design use.
Differences in CPU time
of computation with different methods can be as much as few months
against 1 second. Correctly selected method allows modelling and
calculation that would have otherwise been impossible or
cost-prohibitive to carry out.
The basic engineering
criteria of selection of one of the numerous offered programs are:
a) Easy to use with
moderate-size (PC) computers, without special education of users in the
field theory and sophisticated numerical methods.
b) Fast, no more than
few seconds for one design variant of interactive analysis and
optimisation of 3-D systems, with graphic display or simple synthetic
c) Yielding useful
design data, e.g. power losses in kW, hot-spots in temperature and their
localisation, savings in US$, etc.
flexibility with minimum cost in time and effort.
e) Possibility to
consider easily complicated 3-D, 3-phase, asymmetric, structures, and
heating effects, non-linear permeability, eddy-current effects, etc.
Most of the mentioned
methods were checked in our laboratory. Our experience has shown that,
for example, for 3-D stray field and power loss computation and
screening design in power transformers, an equivalent Reluctance Network
Method RNM-3D has proven the best.
In other problems, on the
other hand, like e.g. transformer coverplate, the simple Biot-Savart
theory has proven more convenient. For 2-D or quasi 2-D analyses
instead, the FEM-2D method is quite satisfactory.
Nevertheless, integral methods (ANM, BEM, RNM) are generally faster,
more convergent and smooth, than differential one (FDM, FEM), which
generate errors by their mathematics nature.
In spite of painful
experience with the Soviet Regime, I always had friendly relations with
Russian and Ukrainian colleagues, who often suffered like we did. They
translated from Polish and edited into Russia my two fundamental books
“Technical Electrodynamics” and “Electromagnetic Calculation of Elements
of Electrical Machines and Devices”.
In 1984 they invited me
with my wife, on their expense, to visit and deliver lectures in
Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Science in Novosibirsk. The
historical circle was closed. I appeared again in Siberia, near to my
deportation place. But this time as a VIP and honorary, scientific
They elected me to the
International Academy of Electrotechnical Sciences, granted the honorary
medal and, what was most pleasantly surprising, they published in
leading Russian Journal "Electrichestvo" No 10/1999 my CV entitled "To
50th Anniversary of Prof. Turowski Scientific Activity".
Especially moving in it was frank remark that "Turowskis family was
prosecuted and deported to Siberia..."
The idea of
well-known nowadays the biennial “International Symposium on
Electromagnetic Fields in Electrical Engineering -ISEF"
was born in 1974, when we, together
with present Professors K. Zakrzewski and J. Sykulski
organised the first Symposium on “Electrodynamics of Transformers and
Electrical Machines” in Castle of Uniejow near Lodz. Then followed
Lodz'79 (Fig. 3), when we hosted many foreign partners, among them
Professors Delaroi (Netherlands), Nakata (Japan),
Savini (Pavia, Italy), Wood (Scotland) and others. Next,
Warsaw and Rydzyna'82, Warsaw'85, Pavia'87, Lodz'89, Southampton'91,
Warsaw'93, Thesaloniki'95, Gdansk'97, Pavia'99, Cracow'01, Maribor'03
Fig. 3. Electrodynamics'79- Precursor ISEF
was a year when we began my close and very intensive co-operation with
Prof. Antonio Savini from the University of Pavia Dr hc of
TUL, Prof. Marisa Rizzo from the University of Palermo, and other
Italian Professors. Agreement on scientific co-opoeration of both
universities was supported very warmly by the then, unforgettable Rector
Alessandro Castellani, present Rector Roberto Schmid, Dr.
hc of TUL, and Director of the Institute Prof. Giorgio Corbellini.
We have published
jointly plenty of scientific papers and books, organised scientific
conferences and extended these contacts to other colleagues and
institutions - both Polish and foreign. Creation of “ISEF” was one of
the “milestones” in our joint activity.
In 1980, the
"Solidarity" movement exploded in Poland. We all, together with 10
millions Poles, joined it with enthusiasm.
During my first visit to the University of Pavia, I was
deeply touched when on 3rd Nov. 1984 the Rector Castellani
introduced me to the Holy Father John Paul the 2nd (Fig. 4).
It was significant brightness in those gloomy days of Martial Law in
Poland, when dying Communist regime murdered the patriotic priest
Jerzy Popieluszko, and attempted to demolish the national motion
aimed at freedom and independence.
In 1989, the communist
"evil empire" collapsed definitely.
It happened when I was
in Japan delivering lectures on invitation of Prof. T. Nakata
(Okayama Univ.) and several transformer works (Toshiba, Hitachi,
Nissin, Mitsubishi, Copyer).
9th October, 1998, the author was honoured again by the title
Doctor Honoris Causa from University of Pavia (Fig. 5), the
oldest University of the world (est.
825). During that Ceremony, I presented lecture on "Engineering
Electromagnetism in Pre-Computer and Computer Era".
Since I was active in
both the eras, I know their research specifics well. The well-deserved
Pre-computer Electromagnetism was very clever and on a high intellectual
When in the ‘50s I was looking for easy
industrial methods of simple representation of sophisticated non-linear
Maxwell's electrodynamics, convenient for rapid engineering design, I
exploited the old Rosenberg
idea. It consists in introduction of linearisation coefficients, which
after some improvements are ap
for active and aq
for reactive power in solid iron. Together with analytical approximation
of magnetisation curves and modernised revival of convenient equivalent
three-dimensional reluctance network method, it prepared an effective
way for rapid modelling and calculation of any 3-D fields
-electromagnetic, thermal, hydraulic, etc. (Flow Networks Method FNM).
The advent of modern
computers came on time for creation of a new tool, called RNM-3D, for
rapid modelling and calculation of stray field and losses in power
transformers. RNM-3D fulfils one of the most important demands (rapid
design) of contemporary Mechatronics.
The computer software
packages RNM-3D was an immediate success during our "International
Summer School of Transformers -ISST'93" in Lodz. Such
industrial-academic meetings seem to be the best inspiration and test
for sensible progress in research and education. They help to fasten
together the industrial community. It profited recently again in
organisation, jointly with Prof.
Lopez-Fernandez from University of
Vigo (Spain), of successful "International Advanced Research Workshop on
Modern Transformers ARWtr'04"
and this year the "2nd International Advancec Research Workshop on
Thanks to Expert System
approach and a deep theoretical and physical research, described in
author's books (mainly "Technical Electrodynamics", 1993), the RNM-3D
has become simple in use and rapid interactive program. It profited in
another, long lasting and still active collaboration with large Indian
transformer industry. Especially with Mr Subramanya from GEC of
India (Allahabad), Mr Gulwadi and Mr Koppikar from
Crompton Graves Co. (Mumbai), Professor Kulkarni, now from Bombay
University, EMCO Transformer Works (Thane), and others.
It was a great satisfaction that the
RNM-3D programs are still used
in plenty (almost 40) transformer works, universities, and research
institutions all over the world - from Canada, USA, Brazil, Mexico,
through Europe, Iran, India, China, to Australia. In spite of
scientific publications, including dozen or so books, in different
languages, this acceptance of colleagues from industry delivers me the
highest professional satisfaction.
experience were research activities and publications on crushing forces
in slots of large turbine-generators and small and special machines,
including induction linear motors.
electromagnetism, the next author's essential interest is in
generalised theory of electromechanical energy conversion and
dynamic processes with necessary consideration of non-linear phenomena,
mentioned above, and contribution of new information systems.
For the design of
electromagnetic and electromechanical systems, two basic streams of
approach are fundamental. They are:
thermal, mechanical, hydraulic and others field theories - necessary for
machine design, and
principle of least action with its Euler-Lagrange Equation - for
the system motion and control.
principle is my another loved scientific tool. Its simple, but clever,
variational energy equation is the "god of any motion" in the nature and
It have appeared, not
without a reason, a beautiful anecdote that:
mathematician philosophers of turn of XVIII / XIX centuries, fascinated
by successes of mathematics, tried to prove an existence of God with the
help of mathematics. It was supposed that, if God was the Supreme Being,
everything that he had created should be extremal (minimum or maximum),
like in variational equation"...
And what is the most wondering? That it is
nothing more than the present
Just fits to it the Italian saying: "So
non a vero, ma ben trovato".
Additionally, my latest
favourite subject is the new, recently emerged discipline called
Among many different definitions, the most
synthetic is that of
who simply summarised:
"Mechatronics is not a
subject, science or technology per se - it is instead to be regarded as
a philosophy - a fundamental way of looking at and doing things..."
The last impressive progress in computer
systems and technology has opened new perspectives for mechatronics. The
"Rapid Design" and Innovations is the one of most important
imperatives of this approach. N. Valéry expressively articulated it:
"Innovation has become
the industrial religion of the late 20th Century. Business
sees it as the key to increasing profits and market share. Governments
automatically reach for it when trying to fix the economy"...
Even if mechatronics is
not a surprise for experienced engineers, it is a new important
challenge for university education and economy policy. It "facilitates
a disciplined process" (Tomkinson
p.5) and has shown more close synergetic, interdependence between such
new disciplines like "Innovation Management", "Mechatronics", "Modern
Technologies and Processing", "Quality management" and others, which I
teach still at a private college WSHE-Lodz at the Dept. of "Information
Mechatronics can be considered now as a
synthesis of all industrial sciences. Its principles can be formulated
- System approach
- Rapid design methods
- Implementation of artificial intelligence
- Substitution of
Concurrent engineering approach by Mechatronic engineering
- Collective work (Immediate
contribution of experts to a joint final program)
- Simple, low-priced,
rapid, and easy-to-understand methods based on deep theory (Only
excellent expert can easily teach and build such programs)
- Exactness of modelling
relevant to the need, and rejection of needless details.
- Analytical methods
wherever it is possible.
- Linearisation of
- Interactive design
cycle with duration in seconds
- Expert systems: a)
Building - quasi static, b) Motion - service or control in real time (The
more of the knowledge loaded into the knowledge-base and data-base, the
simpler and faster is the computer program)
- Simplification of
modelling and design data at: a) Building of elements, b) Motion and
- Structural optimisation
of systems and mechanisms is often more important than particular
- ISO 9000.
Responsibility for product quality is distributed to any work place (One
- Simple machines with
sophisticated control systems.
- Simple tools for
design, based on sophisticated, comprehensive fundamental research
Outsourcing, i.e. translocation part of component production to a
One of the strongest impeding forces in
Europe, and even much more so in post-communist countries’ economies
with their relict organisation of science, is the so called "European
defined by European Commission. Namely:
… "The European seeming
inability to turn excellent research results into globally competitive
products ... It does seem that Europe’s advanced science is too often
taken elsewhere to be exploited commercially - usually to the United
Reasons for this may be related to the European
risk-and-reward equation and Europe’s cultural attitudes to
entrepreneurship, risk-taking and success".
One who wishes to act in
contemporary, most profitable production cannot avoid sophisticated
mathematics and physics as well as a brave innovativeness and economy.
Popular opinion between
economists (Jasinski 2002) is that for solution of industrial and
economic problems co-operation of Science and Industry is essential.
From the engineering
point of view, this goal should be extended into more practical tasks.
The innovativeness and
competitiveness of economy are based on three unavoidable legs:
1. Creators of
innovations, without whom there does not exist any possibility;
2. Information, without
which innovations are not available and dead; and
3. Application in
industry, marketing and commercialisation of the research results.
economical and industrial achievements, like Microsoft,
Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems, FedEx, IBM, Intel, Nokia, etc.
show how important is the role of Leaders and their leadership. This
role is decisive from the beginning to the end of whole
research-and-development (R&D) process.
Contemporary industry and
economy policy is strongly affected by the extraordinary last decades’
development of computer and semiconductor technology as well innovation
impact as a main tool of market competitiveness.
Impressive development of
new integrated circuits technologies, information systems as well as
doctrine and technology of mechatronics changed fundamentally approach
to philosophy, economy, and techniques of research, education, and
product manufacturing methods.
To most desired are
simple programs and design tools for rapid computer modelling and
simulation for design of both machine components of the system and its
dynamic and transient motion.
Rapid design, time to
market, and innovativeness are inevitable conditions and chances for
revival and international competitiveness. From "mechatronic
revolution", suggestions also emerge for proper direction of research,
education, and manufacturing methods.
The fast progress in
creation of effective theory and methodology would not be possible
without harmonious co-operation of many partners - from university
professors, via industry, to DSc, PhD, MSc and undergraduate students.
At the end, the author
wishes to express his sincere thanks to all these so many important
partners for so friendly collaboration. Especially to those from
industry, where successful application of his methods and programs have
been the best tests of usefulness and highest engineering satisfaction
from his research and education efforts.
About the author
Turowski, Prof. PhD, DSc. El. Eng. Full professor (Retired in 2003) in
Electrical Machines and Applied Electromagnetics in the Institute of
Electrical Machines and Transformers (Since 2003 Institute of
Mechatronics and Information Systems) Technical University of Lodz (TUL)
Poland. Since 1999- full Prof. in Dept. of Intelligent Information
Systems, Academy of Humanities and Economics - Lodz. Dr h.c. Univ. Pavia,
Italy 1998. Full Member of the International Academy of Electrotechnical
Sciences, Member of CIGRE (1964-2004), Senior Member IEEE. Director IEMT
(1973-92). Author and joint author of 275 sci. publications, including
12 books, cited over 980 times. Supervisor of 18 PhD thesis. Consultant
of Polish Ministers and Transformer Works in Poland, India and China,
Australia, Canada, etc. Past President of the Polish Association of
Theoretical and Applied Electrotechnical Sciences PTETiS and its
Honorary Member. Member (1978-) and Vice-Chairman (1999-2003) of
Electrical Committee of Polish Academy of Sciences. Chairman of
"International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields in Elec. Engineering
ISEF" (1979-2001) and its Honorary Chairman (2001-), Chairman of Polish
UNESCO-UNISPAR Soc. (1996-2004) and its Honorary Chairman (2004-).
Married, 2 sons.
Zhitomir. A city of southwest European Ukraine, west
of Kiev. First mentioned in 1240, it was a way station on the trade
route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, passed to Lithuania
(1320) and Poland (1569), and was incorporated into Russia in the
late 1770's (AHDW), as Russian Partition of carved Poland.
Not everybody knows that the Kazakh had their own
ancient Latin alphabet. Only after 1945 they were enforced by
Soviets to turn their Latin into the Russian Cyrillic. It is
interesting who and when introduced Latin to the Kazakh culture.
Maybe it was the Polish convict deportees following the XVIII-XIX
century ati-Czar uprisings?
In Katyn 1940 Soviet NKWD shot dead 22000 internee
Polish army officers by pistol in occiput. Plenty of them were
reservists, elite of Polish intellectualises, engineers, professors,
writers and other civil specialists. It was exactly in the period of
main deportation of millions Poles to Siberia including my family.
At the same time of Polish University professors, priests, etc were
imprisoned to German Ausschwitz, Dachau and other concentration
Classical Electrodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1975.
A. Lakhtakia (Editor),
Essays of Formal Aspects of Electromagnetic Theory, Singapore,
London: World Scientific, 1993.
Innovation in industry: Industry gets religion. The Economist, 20
Febr. 5-8 (1999).
Mechatronics Engineering. McGrow-Hill. New York, 1995.